The Project

Capture and Reuse Of biogenic gases for Negative-emission - sustainable biofUelS

In 2020, global biofuel production levels reached 1,677,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day with a growth rate per annum of 38.3% (2009-2020). The global biofuels market is expected to reach a market size of 153.8 billion U.S. dollars by 2024. This growth has largely been driven by policies that encourage the use and production of biofuels due to the perception that it could provide energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in relevant sectors. Nevertheless, as the biofuel production rises steadily, biogenic emissions increase annually as well. By the end of 2021, cumulative biogenic emissions had reached 8.8*108 metric tons CO2e. The main routes of producing carbon waste, as biogenic effluent gases within the biofuel production are anaerobic digestion, ethanolic fermentation and thermochemical processes. To this end, CRONUS aims to accelerate on the path to sustainable bioenergy and can play an important and constructive role in achieving the UN SDGs (7,8,9,11,12 and 13) by incorporating in the biofuels production lines carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage (CUS) techniques promoting the concept of Bioenergy and Carbon capture, utilisation and storage. The latter can stand as a solution to meet the 2021 Glasgow agreement on climate change’s aim of less than 1,5οC and contributes to the phase-out of fossil fuels and the decarbonisation of the EU economy in accordance to European Green Deal goals.


The overall ambition of the CRONUS project is to significantly advance the current state of the art in the area of biofuels production and the utilisation of biogenic effluent gases. CRONUS will introduce effective technologies with high-potential innovations (techno-economic feasible solutions), thus accelerating the green transition and associated transformation of our economy, industry and society with a view to achieving climate neutrality in Europe by 2050.

months of partnership
participant organisations
european countries
functional prototypes


The overall CRONUS project approach is built on insights from research on ‘sustainability transitions’ that analyses innovation within socio-technical systems. More specifically, CRONUS will deliver a unique platform of novel technologies, suitable for easy integration to the existing biofuels production plants, able to upcycle dissimilar kinds of biogenic effluent gases (from anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis, ethanolic fermentation) to biofuels (biomethane, bioethanol) ready to be distributed within installed grids and biochar, as biogenic carbon sink. CRONUS will address all technical barriers and bottlenecks of the processes, while keeping on the loop social, political and economic dimensions. The establishment and activities of “Communities of Practice” will ensure the active involvement and engagement of key stakeholders in performing, demonstrating and assessing the proposed technologies leading to the sustainability of biofuels value chain and active involvement of society.

CRONUS concept is to design, develop, test and validate robust, reliable and cost-effective integrated systems, combining innovative technological processes, able to capture or inhibit biogenic effluents, minimising carbon waste and environmental impacts and simultaneously increasing bioenergy and resource efficiency. The technological processes that will be studied include inter alia: (1) enzymatic capture of CO2; (2) autotrophic algae cultivation; (3) biological CO2 hydrogenation; (4) syngas biomethanation; (5) in-situ biomethanation supported by bioelectrochemical processes and (6) carbon storage as biochar. The proposed technologies, after validation at lab scale, will be upscaled to Functional Prototypes that will operate in relevant environments of biofuels production plants.